Master ofMilitary Studies Requirementsfor the DegreeSrebrenica: "The impossible choices ofa Commander." 'Thesoldier, behefriend orfoe, is charged withtheprotection ofthe weak andunarmed. - [PDF Document] (2024)

Master ofMilitary Studies Requirementsfor the DegreeSrebrenica: "The impossible choices ofa Commander." 'Thesoldier, behefriend orfoe, is charged withtheprotection ofthe weak andunarmed. - [PDF Document] (1)

Master ofMilitary Studies Requirements for the Degree

United States Marine CorpsCommand and StaffCollege

Marine Corps University2076 South Street

Marine Corps Combat Development CommandQuantico, Virginia 22134-5068

MASTER OF MILITARY STUDIES

TITLE: Srebrenica, the impossible choices of a commander

SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENTOF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF

MASTER OF MILITARY STUDIES

AUTHOR: LtCol P.J. de Vin, RNLMC

AY 07-08

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Approved: _--::-11'---:-_--=---;;__-=-______ IIDate: li. A P. C-~ C 2.-0\::> &

Oral Defense Committee Member: ~~<::.--.....=~__~--¥-~::....- _Approved: _v--;--_.----=-----<=<;----;;I!:::....- _

Date: 6I.t-f!..;

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Srebrenica:

"The impossible choices of a

Commander."

'The soldier, be he friend or foe, is charged with the protection of the weak and unarmed. It is

the very essence and reason for his being. When he violates this sacred trust, he not only

profanes his entire cult but threatens the fabric of international society.'

General Douglas MacArthur

PI de Yin

6 March 2008

Master of Military Studies Paper

Master ofMilitary Studies Requirementsfor the DegreeSrebrenica: "The impossible choices ofa Commander." 'Thesoldier, behefriend orfoe, is charged withtheprotection ofthe weak andunarmed. - [PDF Document] (4)

(

DISCLAIMER

THE OPINIONS AND CONCLUSIONS EXPRESSED HEREIN ARE THOSE OF THE

INDIVIDUAL STUDENT AUTHOR AND DO NOT NECESSARILY REPRESENT THE

VIEWS OF EITHER THE MARINE CORPS COMMAND AND STAFF COLLEGE OR ANYOTHER GOVERNMENTAL AGENCY.' REFERENCES TO THIS STUDY SHOULD

INCLUDE THE FOREGOING STATEMENT.

QUOTATION FROM, ABSTRACTION FROM, OR REPRODUCTION OF ALL OR ANY

PART OF THIS DOCUMENT IS PERMITTED PROVIDED PROPERACKNOWLEDGEMENT IS MADE.

ii

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Executive Summary

Title: Srebrenica: "The impossible choices of a Commander."

Author: Lieutenant Colonel Peter Jan de Vin, Royal Netherlands Marine Corps.

Thesis: The objective of this paper is to examine the moral dimension ofthe events inSrebrenica, and explore whether Lieutenant Colonel Thorn Karremans took the correct moral andethical approach, as he decided not to defend the enclave Srebrenica during the first five days ofthe attack on Srebrenica by the Bosnian Serbs.

Discussion: When faced with an ethical or moral dilemma, decisions are extremely difficult.Commanding officers, however, need to make split second decisions in circ*mstances in whichthe ethical or moral dilemma might not have presented itself yet to the full extend. Marine CorpsWarfighting Publication 6 - 11, defines an ethical dilemma as, "the necessity to choose betweencompeting obligations in circ*mstances that prevent one from doing both. Action is at the hearthof ethical behaviour. An academic understanding of what is right and wrong is irrelevant unlessit is coupled with appropriate action. And even then, the answer is not always clear." Action isclearly the most important element in this definition. Taking the appropriate action to solve thedilemma requires choosing between competing obligations. However, to make that choicebetween competing obligations one must first recognize the dilemma. The skills to recognize anethical dilemma and the choice between competing obligations may be influenced by severalfactors. In order to answer the thesis therefore, a framework for analysis is used. Thisframework addresses the following questions. First, was the relevant ethical problemrecognized? Second, were the right decisions made when faced with a moral dilemma? Thisincludes efficient communication of that decision. Third, did Karremans resist making decisionsthat were unjust but convenient for that situation?

Conclusions: The decisions Karremans had to make during the fall of the enclave were verymuch about life and death and clearly influenced the history of Srebrenica and its population.The presented framework for analyses identifies skills that commanders need to possess to makeadequate decisions when faced with ethical and moral dilemmas. In the case of Srebrenica, itbecame clear that these skills were affected by many external and internal factors. As a result, itwas extremely difficult for Karremans to make the moral right decisions and to take appropriateaction. In retrospect, however, I believe that Karremans did not take the correct moral and·ethical approach as he decided not to defend the enclave during the attack on Srebrenica.

iii

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Preface

In July 1995 the "Safe Area" Srebrenica fell into the hands of the Bosnian Serbs.

Dutchbat III was the third Dutch battalion that was tasked to safeguard the enclave against

hostilities, to protect the population through its presence, to demilitarize the Muslims, and to

create conditions in which humanitarian relief could be provided. The focus of this paper lies on

the days from January 18th till July 11th, 1995. I want to emphasize that Lieutenant Colonel

Thorn Karremans had no idea that the loss of the enclave Srebrenica would result in the death of

about 7,500 Muslim men. Therefore, this drama that cries to heaven plays no role in answering

the question whether or not Karremans took the correct moral and ethical approach as he decided

not to defend the enclave. Furthermore, I also want to emphasize that the conclusions are meant

as recommendations to future commanders, not to accuse Lieutenant Colonel Thorn Karremans

or any other member ofDutchbat for what happened in the enclave. The responsibility for the

fall of the enclave and the mass murder was of the Bosnian Serbs in general and General Mladic

in particular.

I would like to thank Dr. Paolo Tripodi for his judicious criticism and encouragement to

start this project. The writing itselfbenefited from excellent editing, I am much indebted to

Andrea Hamlen, always insightful and supportive, who made many valuable suggestions and

eliminated needless repetition.

iv

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Contents

Executive Summary

Preface

Introduction

A moral and ethical framework for analysis

Srebrenica January 18th- July nth, 1995

Karremans·' decisions in relation to the moral and ethical framework

Conclusions

Annex A: The situation in Srebrenica June, 1995

Annex B: Chronology of most important events January - July 1995

Notes

Bibliography

v

page iii

page iv

page 1

page 5

page 7

page 25

page 31

page 34

page 35

page 44

page 48

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I~

Introduction

On April 16th, 2002, the Dutch Prime Minister, Wim Kok, offered Queen Beatrix his

cabinet's resignation. The reason for this resignation was the publication of the N10D rapport

(Netherlands Institute on War Documentation) on the fall of the United Nations' (UN) "Safe

Area" Srebrenica. Seven years after the collapse of Srebrenica in 1995, the Dutch cabinet

concurred with the report's conclusion that the international community had not done enough to

protect the people living in the safe areas in Bosnia. Prime Minister Kok stated that, as the

international community was anonymous and therefore could not take responsibility, the Dutch

government however, as a member of that international community, could. Kok emphasized that

the Netherlands was not accepting the blame for the mass murder that took place, neither could

Dutchbat 1IIi (hereafter referred to as Dutchbat) be held responsible for what happened in the

enclave of Srebrenica. According to Kok the responsibility for the fall of the enclave and the

mass murder was of the Bosnian Serbs and General Mladic in particular. 1

The political decision in 1993, to send Dutch soldiers to the Former Yugoslavia was

widely supported by the Dutch society? In the Netherlands public and media pressure 'to do

something - anything!' to end the humanitarian crisis in the former Yugoslavia was strong,

especially when the disturbing images ofprison-camps and ethnic cleansing reached the public at

the end of 1992.3 Strong conviction that the Muslim population in Bosnia Herzegovina needed

protection and humanitarian assistance led to this support for the political decision. Dutch troops

were to be deployed in several locations in Yugoslavia.

i The Dutch battalions that were deployed to Srebrenica were successively given the name Dutchbat I, II, and III.

1

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When on Tuesday, July 11th, 1995, the 'safe area' Srebrenica, protected by Dutchbat, fell

into the hands of the Bosnian Serbs, the world reacted in disbelief. The Dutch government,

Dutch society, and the intern~tional community were extremely worried for the safety of Dutch

peacekeepers. There was a national and international sigh of relief when on July 2ih, the last

men ofthe Dutch battalion arrived safely in Zagreb. Initially, the first days after the fall of the

enclave, Dutchbat was showered with praise for their actions. Madeleine Albright, the United

States Permanent Representative at the UN, said that the Dutch peacekeepers "set a standard for

bravery and dedication that will be long remembered.,,4

However, already on July 17th, 1995, the first indications that a human tragedy might

have taken place in and outside the enclave surfaced. The origin ofthe'genocide issue' lay with

the Dutch Minister for Development Cooperation, Jan Pronk. The Dutch government had agreed

I

not to make any statements about the situation in the enclave until all Dutchbat members were in--,-----

safety.5 As Pronk addressed the issue before Dutchbat was in safety, and as an official member

ofthe Dutch government, it was breaking news. On July 15th, Pronk arrived in Tuzla to assess

what assistance the Netherlands could provide to the Displaced Persons (DPs) from Srebrenica.

Pronk also hoped, however, to find out more about the fate of several thousand missing Muslim

men from Srebrenica - an issue that was creating some serious concern.6 He held several

'meetings with representatives of the UN, Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs), Bosnian

authorities, and DPs at Tuzla Air Base. On his return to the Netherlands, on July 1i h, Pronk

made immediately clear that "thousands ofpeople have been murdered. (...) Real mass murders

have taken place. This is something that we krlew could happen. The Serbs have done this

several times. It's genocide that is taking place.,,7 When he repeated these accusations on Dutch

2

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television the following day, the national, and later the international debate on what really

happened in Srebrenica, and the role Duchtbat played, started.

The question was also quickly raised as to why, ifPronks' account was true, the Dutch

soldiers had done nothing to prevent the killing of thousands of Muslim men. Critical

commentaries began to appear in the press. On July 1i h, on the opinion page ofDe Volkskrant,

one of the major newspapers in the Netherlands, Herman Wigbold, a senior journalist, wondered

whether there was a major difference between the conductors who drove the trains to Westerbork

(the deportation transit camp set up by the Nazis in the Netherlands during the Second World

War) and UN peacekeepers who ride on the Bosnian Serb trucks.8

From then on, the public opinion turned against Dutchbat, which was blamed for the fall

of the enclave and therefore, for the mass murder of about 7,500 Muslim men. Many in the

Netherlands felt the battalion should have done more to protect the Muslim population and that

the soldiers had apparently given their own safety the highest priority.9 Lieutenant-Colonel

~ Thorn Karremans, the commanding officer ofDutchbat, in particular was blamed for the weak

resistance that Dutchbat put up against the Bosnian Serbs. In his defence, Karremans stated that

Dutchbat was in no position to defend the enclave, and that an attempt to do so would have

caused many casualties among his soldiers and innocent refugees. 10 According to Robert

Siekmann, Dutchbat did not violate the UNPROFOR mandateii or superior orders during the

Bosnian-Serb attack on Srebrenica or during the evacuation of the Muslim population. I I He

ii According to the mandate UN troops were ordered to deter attacks against the safe areaSi to monitor the ceasefire; to promote the

withdrawal of military and paramilitary units; and to occupy some key points on the ground, in additi6n to participating in the delivery of

humanitarian relief to the population.

3

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concluded that behaviour ofDutchbat, notwithstanding moral and ethical considerations, stood

the test of legal criticism. 12

While Dutchbats' actions stand the test of legal criticism a detailed moral analysis of

Dutchbats' conduct is not yet available. The objective ofthis paper is to examine the moral

dimension of the events in Srebrenica and explore whether Karremans took the correct moral and

ethical approach as he decided not to defend the enclave during the first five days of the attack

on Srebrenica.

In order to answer this question I will first present a framework for moral analysis. Then,

I will focus on the key events that occurred in the enclave from January 18th until July 11th, 1995,

and I will analyse the most important decisions that Karremans made from July 6th to 11th, within

the presented moral and et4ical framework.

4

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A moral and ethical framework for analysis

Marine Corps Warfighting Publication 6 - 11, defines an ethical dilemma as, "the

necessity to choose between competing obligations in circ*mstances that prevent one from doing

both. Action is at the hearth of ethical behaviour. An academic understanding ofwhat is right

and wrong is irrelevant unless it is coupled with appropriate action. And even then, the answer is

not always clear.,,13 Action is clearly the most important element in this definition. Taking the

appropriate action to solve the dilemma requires choosing between competing obligations.

However, to make that choice between competing obligations one must first recognize the

dilemma. The ability to recognize an ethical dilemma and the choice between competing

obligations may be influenced by several factors. According to Van Iersel, and Van Baarda a

commander should develop those skills necessary to: 14

1. Recognize a relevant ethical problem. This, however, may be severely hampered by

exhaustion, lack of information, strong prejudice, or external influence of ones beliefs.

2. Make the right decision when faced with a moral dilemma; this includes efficient

communication of that decision. Unclear orders or legal guidelines, unworkable

restrictions, and abuse of laws or treaties may influence this decision-making process.

3. Resist making a decision that is unjust but convenient for that situation.

During a mission, the commanding officer determines how the objective is to be achieved

and what risks should be taken. It is precisely during the courses of action development that the

moments of decision that require moral competences will be encountered: For instance, should

priority be given to providing humanitarian assistance, or to one's own safety? What are higher

5

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headquarters orders? Van Baarda and Verweij rightly stressed that having to make a decision in

fractions of a second is not a matter of theory for military personnel, but part of their reality.

That decision can change the course ofhistory. It could be a decision involving matters oflife

anddeathY

The decisions Karremans had to make during the fall of the enclave were very much

about life and death and clearly influenced the history of Srebrenica and its population. In

November 1996, Britishjoumalist Robert Fisk stated, 'The enclave was an UN safe haven [sic],

and the Dutch were supposed to defend it. Through bureaucratic misunderstandings,

incompetence and - yes - some cowardice too, they failed to do so. And since the Dutch

represented us, that failure is our shame and humiliation for all time.' 16

When faced with an ethical or moral dilemma, decisions are extremely difficult. Often

these decisions are only in part defendable. Commanding officers, however, need to make split

second decisions in circ*mstances in which the ethical or moral dilemma might not have

presented itself yet to the full extend.

6

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Srebrenica January 18th - July llt\ 1995

The UN units that were deployed in the safe areas in Bosnia since 1993 were expected to

deter an attack by the warring factions. This meant little more than a symbolic presence. UN

Undersecretary-General, head of the Department ofPeacekeeping Operations, Kofi Annan wrote

in 1993 in a code cable to the then Swedish Force Commander, Lieutenant General Lars-Eric

Wahlgren, that the demilitarisation of Srebrenica and the other safe areas only meant that the

United Nations Protection Force (UNPROFOR) took on the 'moral responsibility' for the safety

of the safe areas, but he also realized that UNPROFOR did not possess the military resources to

guarantee safety. Annan stated that a small number ofpeacekeepers could not be expected to

deal with a large-scale invasion by Bosnian Serbs. UNPROFOR would seek cover when fired at,

like everyone else. It was up to the warring factions to treat Srebrenica as a safe area-for the

population in the enclave. I?

In May 1993, UN Resolution 836 which dealt with the fulfilment of the UNPROFOR

mandate was passed. The crucial point of this resolution was, however, that it was aimed at

deterring attacks on safe areas, rather then resisting such attacks. The former legal advisor at the

United Nations Peace Forces in Zagreb, Gary F. Collins, and Dutch Lieutenant Colonel Joost van

Duurling, concluded that Resolution 836 allowed for the use of force with the weapons available

on the ground and Close Air Support (CAS), but both capabilities were to be used only in self

defence of the UN troops. Protection of the population could not be included in the concept of

selfdefence, according to Collins and Duurling. I8 Yet, this position was not in line with the

political interpretation given to self defence. The purpose of the mandate was to allow for the

delivery of humanitarian aid and to promote the peace process. This meant that facilitating the

7

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humanitarian aid or the protection ofthe safe areas could conflict with each other because ofthe

limited manpower and also in view of the limited resources available to UNPROFOR.

UN Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali concurred that indeed his vision was to

protect the population, rather than the territory. 19 However, due to the nature and configuration

of the territory, the protection of the population in Srebrenica was closely connected to the

occupation of territory. Srebrenica lay in a valley which was surrounded by hills and high

ground. Protection of the people meant occupation of the high ground.

In order to make adequate preparation for its mission to Srebrenica, Dutchbat was

established on October 3rd, 1994. Eighty different ullits from the Armed Forces sent personal to

the 13th infantry battalion from the 11th airmobile brigade to form Dutchbat,2o During an eleven

week preparation period, the battalion went through a rigorous training program. During the

final exercise Noble Falcon in Germany, Dutchbat was put to the test. Some heated discussions

took place between Karremans and the exercise leader. Karremans had resisted some criticism

that the head of the brigades operations branch, leading the exercise, Major PJ.M. van Uhm,

made about his style of command. Karremans seemed unable to accept the criticism and

interpret it as constructive advice.21 Although the battalion's preparation was far from ideal, in

the end Karremans believed that, all things considered, he left for Srebrenica with a well-trained

battalion.22

Understanding the relationship between Karremans and his second in command in

Srebrenica, Major Robert Franken, is important in order to gain a better perspective on some of

the issues Dutchbat had to confront. Karremans was mainly focused on analysing the situation

and reporting to the higher chain of command, while Franken was in charge ofleading

8

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Dutchbats' daily activities. Karremans and Franken allocated the tasks and they decided every

evening about who would do what. Their decisions were announced by Karremans at the staff

meeting. Karremans kept all contact with the world outside the enclave; he read the reports to the

higher UN chain ofcommand (Tuzla and Sarajevo) as well as reports to The Hague and interacted

with the press. The Netherlands Army doctrine says the following about the role of the

commander:

In so far the operational conditions permit [the commander] must see and be seen; his

staffmust not form a barrier between himself and the troops. (...). An interest in the

person behind the soldier and in the working ofhis mind allows the commander to assess

the readiness ofthe unit and in particular, the morale of the troopS.23

However, because Major Franken was in charge ofleading Dutchbats' daily activities, as a result

of the arrangement with Karremans, it was he and not Karremans, who had the greater visibility

in the battalion. Therefore, it was unclear whether the commander or his deputy was in charge of

the battalion. Mainly during the fall ofthe enclave there was a perception that operational

command was in the hands ofdeputy battalion commander Franken and that he was also more

cJpable from an operational point ofview. Franken remained calm and in control during the most/

stressful events of 1995. Inan interview with NIOD researchers, Franken stated that a battalion

commander could not be everywhere, and that Karremans should not have tried to do so. In his

view the commander 'Yas supposed to stay at the centre of the web and retain an overall view of

the operation. Franken emphasised, however, that there was only one commander, and that was

Karremans.24

9

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A ~taffNon Conunissioned Officer (NCO) even stated that the battalion HQ had been a 'one

man band,' in the person ofFranken. That was not as it ought to have been, but the NCO believed it

was a good thing Franken was there because Karremans had not displayed adequate leadership?5

On January 18th, 1995, Karremans and his battalion took over the responsibility for the

safe area. Dutchbats' mission was to safeguard the enclave against hostilities, to protect the

population through its presence, to demilitarize the Muslims, and to create conditions in which

humanitarian relief could be provided.26 Dutchbat took over two compounds. One of these

compounds was located in Potocari, a town in the North of the enclave where Charley-company,

the support company, and the battalion staffwere located. The other compound was in

Srebrenica, this was the location ofBravo-company. In and around Srebrenica and Potocari

there were 14 observation posts (OPs)--a number that changed over time--from which Dutchbat

monitored some 50 kilometres of enclave boundaries (see annex A).27

Since the very beginning, Dutchbats' mission was severely hampered by the Bosnian

Serbs' policy to minimize logistical support to the battalion and the enclave itself?8 On February

18th, the last fuel convoy reached Dutchbat and from May on fresh food would also become a

luxury--the soldiers ate primarily combat rations. On April 26th, a group of 180 soldiers were not

allowed to go back to Srebrenica after they returned from their leave. From then on, Dutchbat

had approximately 430 soldiers in the enclave of which 280 had some sort of supporting

function.

Karremans reported several times on the consequences that the fuel shortage had on the

execution ofthe mission.29 He even analyzed the possibility of abandoning all the OPs, although

this was !lot an option because it would, in Karremans' opinion, also mean the end of his

10

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mISSIOn. He believed also, correctly so as it later turned out, that in case of a withdrawal from

the OPs, the retreating OP crews would be met with some heavy ABiH (Bosnian Army)

resistance. As a result ofthe lack of fuel and other important supplies, at the end of June 1995,

the French Force Commander, General Bernard Janvier, considered the UN unit in Srebrenica to

be 'semi-operational'. Janvier reported to New York that this situation was 'bound to sap morale

as soldiers increasingly asked: "Why are we here when we are prevented from doing our jobs

effectively?,,30

Another limitation for Dutchbat was its inability to access reliable intelligence. In June

1994, the information perception of the then Dutchbat I commander, was one of a 'poor'

intelligence picture. Karremans' predecessor had reported that he needed an extra intelligence

officer. As a result, Dutchbat III had an extra intelligence officer within its organisation.

Military and political leaders had' little or no interest in the intelligence position. This became! ~

very clear when the United States, which also had trouble in establishing a clear intelligence

picture in Eastern Bosnia, offered on several occasions to smuggle Comint-suitcases into the

enclave. In those suitcases, there was equipment that would enable U.S. intelligence agencies to

listen in on VRS (Bosnian Serb Army) and ABiH walkie-talkies communications. In exchange,

.' the Americans would provide the Dutch with the information that was collected. The Dutch

army leadership refused the offer because it was risky and did not adhere to UN policy.31 As a

result, Dutchbat had to rely on its own intelligence collection capacity.

Among his resources, Karremans had a platoon of Dutch Special Forces (Commandos)

from the Netherlands Army and, from February on, three Joint Commission Observers (JCOs)

from the United Kingdom. The JCOs were Special Forces that worked for,and reported directly

11

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to, the commander ofUNPROFOR. Their mission in Srebrenica remained unknown to

Dutchbat.32 Karremans' predecessors had used the commandos to patrol outside the enclave

border and report about the situation there. Karremans allowed the Commandos only to execute

patrols inside the enclave.

The relationship between the JCOs and the battalion staffwas poor. Karremans was

concerned that the JCOs independent movement in or outside the enclave would provoke the

VRS into hostile actions. Therefore, he allowed the JCOs only to execute patrols in the presence

of the Dutch commandos. As a result of this overly cautious use of Special Forces, another

important source for intelligence collection was his civil military affairs section, section five.

This section had regular contact with Civilians, military, and NGOs in the enclave. In retrospect,

the section five officers admitted that during their preparation for the mission they had no clue

what their mission was. Once in Srebrenica, they continued the work of their predecessors from

Dutchbat II; over time their efforts to work with civilian and military authorities were severely

hampered by their poor assets. This put a strain on their relationship with the civil and military

authorities, as well as NGOS.33

The final source for intelligence collection was the soldier. The rules for social contact

with the civilian population in the Dutch battalions were restrictive. In the case of Dutchbat I,

there was still a degree of flexibility, but by the time Dutchbat III deployed this had changed; no

one could leave the gate at will, and certainly no one was permitted to leave alone. Soldiers on

patrol were also forbidden to have contact with the local population.34 Due to this restrictive

policy, Dutchbats' soldiers were never of great importance for intelligence collection. Overall,

the intelligence position of the battalion was limited.35

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In the enclave three primary groups were present. First, there were some 5,000 soldiers

from the ABiH. Second, there was the original population of Srebrenica-which included some

10,000 people, and finally, there were around 22.000 - 25,000 refugees from other areas who

had fled to the enclave earlier. All together, about 40,000 persons lived in the enclave.36

Although Karremans' personal interaction with the local population was limited, he was

sympathetic towards them. Karremans exemplified this sympathetic attitude in the way he dealt

with food shortages in the enclave. Surplus food from Karremans' battalion was taken, packed,

and then sent to those most in need in the enclave. As a veteran of the UNIFIL mission in

Lebanon, Karremans was also very supportive of humanitarian projects and understood that the

blue helmets had to gain the confidence ofthe population.37 However, the battalions' increased

logistical limitations, the result ofBosnian Serbs' policy to minimize Dutchbats' logistical

support, made humanitarian projects impossible beginning in March 1995.". This decrease of

humanitarian projects also limited the interaction with the local population.

When Karremans took over command of the enclave, he was immediately confronted

with his first crisis, not with the Bosnian-Serbs, but with the ABiH. This crisis would be referred

to as the Bandera crisis. The crisis was about Freedom OfMovement (FOM) into an area South

West of the enclave, known as the Bandera triangle. From January 12th, Dutchbat patrols were

denied access into this area. After consulting with his higher command, Karremans ordered

three patrols into the Bandera Triangle in order to re-establish FOM. All the patrols were

stopped and the ABiH even took ninety Dutch soldiers hostage for three days. When the

Bandera crisis ended on February 1st, Dutchbats' FOM to this area in the South West of the

enclave was permanently lost. Karremans was glad that the crisis ended without bloodshed,

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although he was very disappointed in the local military and civilian authorities. As a result,

Dutchbat's initial relationship with the Muslim military leaders was very uneasy.38 Karremans

reported the incident to his higher headquarters and asked for mediation on a higher level with

ABiH military leadership. With FOM lost in certain areas in the enclave, Dutchbat was limited

in the execution of its mission.39

When in the following months the Bosnian Serbs imposed many restrictions on the use of

roads, supplies, and rotations, the ABiH and the Muslim population behaved regularly in such a

way that they prov<;>ked hostile actions from the Bosnian-Serbs. This in tum had also

repercussions for Dutchbat and that resulted in a growing mistrust and antipathy towards the

Muslims among the peacekeepers.4o Furthermore, the Dutch soldiers who occupied the OPs saw

Muslim soldiers regularly cross the enclave border.41 They smuggled goods and sometimes they

attacked villages, burned the Bosnian Serbs' houses, killed civilians, and stole food. These trips

out of the enclave undermined the concept of the safe area. A Dutch peacekeeper remembered

that a Muslim soldier showed him a necklace with pieces ofhuman ears attached to it; the sqldier

told him they were Serb ears.42 Incidents like this caused the Dutch to develop a negative

perception ofthe Muslim population. The Dutch expected that they would be protecting only

poor refugees in the enclave, but they eventually realized that this was not the case.

For the protection of the enclave and its refugees, Karremans relied on air support. An

important event that would affect this reliance on air support, was the hostage crisis that followed

the NATO bombings on May 25th and 26th• During these two days, NATO airplanes bombed

ammunition storage sites near Pale. As a reaction, the Bosnian Serbs took between three and

four hundred hostages and attacked British and Ukrainian peacekeepers in the safe areas of

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Gorazde and Zepa. On May 28th, the Bosnian Serbs took the soldiers of two British OPs hostage

and occupied the OPs themselves. To prevent the loss ofmore personnel on the OPs, the British

hastily abandoned 6 other OPs and moved to Gorazde. In the process, they lost several

Armoured Personal Carriers (APCs), hundreds of uniforms, and other UN material. In Zepa, the

Ukrainians were forced to stay in their OPs and lost their freedom ofmov<;(ment,43

As a consequence of the deteriorating situation in Gorazde and Zepa, Karremans was

ordered to abandon his most vulnerable OPs on two occasions. Yet, he refused to do so. The

first time he received the order was on the evening ofMay 28th, the second time was in the early

morning ofMay 29th• After a consultation with the UNPROFOR HQ in Sarajevo, the order was

changed. Karremans was allowed to let his men stay in the Ops, but he had to make preparations

to abandon them within an hour.44 Furthermore, he was ordered not to take unnecessary risk and

that UN lives were not to be jeopardized.45

After the air strikes near Pale on May 25th and 26th, UNPROFOR was paralyzed. Janvier

wanted to avoid further confrontations and a further increase of the tension that could be caused

by the use of CAS. Boutros-Ghali also saw how considerable the consequences of the use of air

power were. Therefore, he decided that from then on he needed to be consulted personally

before air strikes and CAS were authorized. As a result, the UN key for the use of air power was

in the hands ofthe Secretary-General himself. Although personal authorization ofBoutros Ghali

might cause problems due to time pressure, Boutros-Ghali wanted to be involved. However, as a

result of the hostage crisis, air strikes were no longer considered a viable option; CAS remained

available to UN commanders on the ground.46 General Cees Nicolai, the Dutch chief of staff of

the Bosnia Herzegovina Command in Sarajevo, had at least two telephone conversations with

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Karremans to inform him about the new policy with regard to air support; no airstrikes were

permitted, and CAS was to be used only after the required criteria were met,47

After Karremans refused the order to leave his most vulnerable OPs in the night ofMay

28/29th, he received new orders that allowed him to stay. On May 30th

, May 31 st, and June 1st,

there were several meetings between Dutchbat and Bosnian-Serbs representatives. During these

meetings, the VRS stated that they were concerned that OP-E might be attacked by the ABiH.48

During a telephone conversation, VRS Colonel Vukota Vukovic, commander of the Ske1ani-

brigade, told Karremans that the VRS was going to use the road near OP-E and as a result,

Dutchbat had to withdraw its troops from the OP. Vukovic emphasized that the VRS had no\

hostile intentions; they were only protecting themselves against a possible aggression from the

ABiH. Karremans was not impressed and reported his intensions to his higher headquarters; he

decided to defend the OP and repositioned the Quick Reaction Force in order to deal with any

possible threat,49 Karremans made clear that he would respond with force to any VRS attempt to

cross the enclave boarder. 50

On June 3rd, the VRS launched small attacks to force the Dutch to abandon OP-E. There

\

was no resistance at all from the Dutch side, not from the troops in the OP or from the QRF that

arrived and met the fleeing OP crew about one and a halfkilometre behind the OP. Captain

Groen, the company commander of Bravo Company, who had joined the QRF, moved forward

with an APC in order to investigate how far VRS soldiers had moved into the enclave. He was

followed by ABiH soldiers. When Groen wanted to tum his APC around, some 500 meters from

OP-E, the ABiH soldiers, who had moved out of side through the woods alongside the APC,

suddenly blocked the road and threatened to fire at Groen ifhe moved further backwards with his

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APC. According to the ABiH, Dutchbat had to hold that position in order to prevent the VRS

from moving further into the enclave. After some tense moments, the Dutch proposal to create a

new OP on that same spot was approved by the ABiH..

During the 'attack' on OP-E, Karremans requested CAS, which was not in line with the

new air support policy, so it was refused. After the incident, Karremans sent a situation report to

his higher command in which he described the deteriorating situation in the enclave and

Dutchbats' increasing operational limitations to deal with it. In addition, he also reported to the

Netherlands--outside his regular chain of command--with the request to bring the worsening

situation to the attention ofthe Ministers ofDefence and Foreign Affairs.51 The incident further

worsened the relationship between Dutchbat and the ABiH. The ABiH started to distrust

Ducthbat more and more. 52

Karremans' mission was also to demilitarize the enclave. In order to comply with this

part of the mission, Dutchbat had to confiscate the weapons from the Muslims. Muslims who

openly carried weapons risked losing them. Karremans had complained that he needed a

mandate change in order to follow armed individuals into their houses as well. Now Dutchtbat

and the ABiH were playing hide and seek and it was a constant strain on the relation with the

Muslims. After the OP-E crisis, the situation between the Serbs and Muslims worsened rapidly.

Karremans reported on numerous occasions that if it came to a fight in the enclave, Dutchbat was

not capable ofdefending it, and so what was he supposed to do if the enclave was attacked?

Hence, with the increasing tension between the VRS and the ABiH, which Dutchbat was unable

to stop from getting worse, fighting between them became more open.

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Karremans was in no position to deny the Muslims the right to defend themselves, since

he obviously could not.53 He allowed the Muslims to carry their weapons more openly and

agreed to return the heavy weapons to the ABiH once a massive ground attack by the VRS

commenced.54 Karrlemans informed his HQ in Tuzla about this decision and this headquarters

. concurred as long as the Muslims used their weapons only in self-defence55. A new situation

now existed: Muslims were reinforcing and extending their trenches and other defensive

positions between and around the OPs on the border ofthe enclave in order to stop a possible

Serb attack.

The VRS attack on ABiH positions in the proximity ofOP-F started July 6th, 1995, (see

annex B, Chronology of most important events January - July 1995). Mortars and tanks were

fired at the ABiH positions. In the process, OP-F was hit twice and there was some considerable

damage to the watchtower of the OP. The question is whether or not this was done deliberately

to destroy the Dutch TOW anti tank system. Dutchbat had six TOW (range 3000m) and eighteen

Dragon (range 1000m) anti tank firing systems in the enclave. Both systems had become highly

unreliable due to poor maintenance. The Dutch Ministry ofDefence had given the order not to

use the TOW systems because the risk that they would misfire or explode was high, but the

Dragons could still be used.56 The battalion also had AT-4 (range 400m) anti tank systems in

the enclave. The rounds that impacted on the watchtower provided Karremans with a good

justification to request an air strike on multiple targets, instead of limited CAS because he was

afraid that VRS would retaliate with artillery. Dutchbat was in no position to prevent retaliation

from outside the enclave with artillery or rockets. In the days to come, Karremans' position on

how to answer VRS aggression with an air strike instead of CAS would not change.57 In a

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telephone conversation with Karremans, General Nicolai again informed him ofthe fact that an

attack on an OP did not justify an air strike as long as its soldiers still could safely withdraw. A

ground commander could only ask CAS on targets that were actually firing on UNPROFOR

forces. 58 On July ih, there was a lull in the battle and Karremans reported on the situation. In

this report he urgently asked for assistance by ground and air.59

On July 8th, the fighting continued. When OP-F was hit by shells from a tank, Karremans

requested CAS for the second time. Again, the request was denied.60 As the fighting closed in

on OP-F, the OP leader requested permission to abandon the OP. Permission to do so was

denied by Franken. Fighting continued and a Serb tank broke through the ABiH lines some 100

meters from the OP. Then, two more tanks showed up and they were used to breach the safety

wall around the OP. During these hectic moments, Franken was reported to have given the order

to open fire upon the tanks with TOW missiles.61 This order, however, was not executed.

Finally, the VRS tried to attract Dutch attention by shouting toward the OP crew and by waving

a white flag. Dutch and VRS soldiers then had a short meeting that resulted in Dutch

abandonment ofthe OP. After their retreat in an APC, the Dutch were blocked by the ABiH

some 200 meters behind the OP. The situation between the ABiH and the Dutch was very tense

because the ABiH did not want Dutchbat to leave the OP. The OP commander then requested

permission to force his way through the roadblock. Permission was given and when the APC

passed the ABiH soldiers, one of the Dutch soldiers was fired upon by an ABiH soldier with a

shotgun. As a result the Dutch soldier died from a head wound. 62

The incident at bp-F and the tense situation after the Dutch left the OP and were

confronted with the ABiH was broadcasted on the battalions' radio net. This was an all informed

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net so all the other OPs were aware of the events. The death of a Dutch soldier killed by a

Muslim had a negative impact on the battalion and the soldiers at the OPs. That same evening

oP-u was also abandoned by the Dutch. OP-U commander, Sergeant J.A.J. van Eck, choose to

move into VRS territory because he did not trust the ABiH soldiers behind the OP. Sergeant van

Eck also was present when the VRS took OP-E on June 3rd• Since then, he had asked for more

specific orders as what to do when an OP would be attacked by the VRS. There were no

instructions for such a possibility. The answer he was given prior by the battalion staff was that

when the VRS would cross the enclave border he should fire over the heads of the VRS soldiers

and if that did not work he should aim and fire at them direct!y. Thus, considering the

overwhelming force of the VRS this would mean suicide. This dilemma was recognized by the

battalion staff earlier on and the OP commanders received the order that they had to deal with the

situation as they saw fit,63 The safety ofthe Dutch soldiers should be leading in their decisions.64

On July 9th, OPs S (surrenders to VRS), M (held hostage by ABiH), D (held hostage by

ABiH) and K (surrender to VRS) were abandoned. Sgt Bos, who was sent on a reconnaissance

mission in an APC to the Swedish Shelter Project, was suddenly surrounded and taken hostage

by the VRS as well. During the afternoon, Karremans received orders to establish a blocking

position in order to prevent the VRS from moving further into the enclave to Srebrenica. During

a telephone conversation with Colonel Charles Brantz, the second in command at the

headquarters sector North East, Karremans voiced his worries that the VRS might be interested

in more than just the southern part of the enclave. Brantz agreed and both thought, for the first

time, that the VRS might have an interest in taking the whole enclave.65 At the same time, Dutch

Minister ofDefence, Joris Voorhoeve, explained on Dutch TV that CAS had been requested

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twice on July 9th• Voorhoeve considered the use of CAS unavoidable; however, the safety of the

Dutch soldiers had priority. The order issued to the commanders by Voorhoeve was to avoid

bloodshed. He stated, 'I want every man and woman to come home safely. ,66 It is striking that

on the day that Karremans had not requested CAS because he was afraid for the safety of the

hostages, higher headquarters was initiating CAS for Srebrenica.67 Yashusi Akashi, the Special

Representative of the UN Secretary-General for the former Yugoslavia, however did not approve

the initiative from Sarajevo.68

The order for the blocking position to prevent any VRS movement into Srebrenica itself

was controversial in the eyes ofKarremans.69 He had reported many times that his battalion was

not in a position to defend the enclave so he was astonished that this was the order he received.

After analysing this mission, he reported back to Nicolai that this assignment was still unfeasible

but that he would execute it as ordered. He did not ask for any clarification on how to execute

this mission or when to open fire, nor was there any change in the Rules of Engagement given to

Karremans.70 General Nicolai further explained to Karremans that Dutchbat needed to use small

arms fire to stop the VRS from moving into Srebrenica. This would convince higher

headquarters of the necessity to support him with CAS.n Karremans, on his turn, ordered his

battalion reserve to be placed under the command of Captain Groen. Karremans gave Captain

Groen the order to establish a blocking position to prevent a VRS move into the city. Karremans

explained that the blocking position was supposed to be a 'line in the sand' that should not be

crossed by the VRS.72 Major Franken sent a fax to Captain Groen with the written order for the

blocking position.73 On the morning of July 10th, some form of a blocking position was indeed

established.

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After receipt of the order, Captain Groen also thought that the mission was not a feasible

one. Groen and Franken had an additional conversation over the phone during which Franken

clearly explained the order to Groen again. Franken told Groen that this was a "serious green

mission," instead of the regular blue UN-appearanc~.74· On the mission that Groen had to

execute there was no misunderstanding.75 Groen, who still thought the mission as formulated

was unrealistic, changed the intent of the mission. In Dutch military orders, the intent of the

commander is the main element. The subordinate has freedom to fill in how he will execute the

mission as long as it achieves the intent ofhis commander. Groens' main effort was not, as

indented by Karremans, stopping the VRS by the use of force, but protecting the population

through presence. Groen struggled with the neutral position ofDutchbat. If Dutchbat would

fight openly at the side of the ABiH, in his view, neutrality would be lost and Dutchbats' primary

mission--protection ofthe population--would be endangered. Groen thought he could realize his

mission by positioning the blocking position between the population and the VRS. Groen

briefed his subordinates accordingly. The main goal of the mission was prevention of escalation

in order to deescalate the conflict. Furthermore, in addition to the blocking position, the VRS

aggression would be stopped by a massive air strike that morning.76

During the day Karremans once more, although still worried for the safety of the

hostages, requested CAS. Fighting between VRS and ABiH continued. Dutch troops constantly

tried to position themselves in front of the VRS in order to keep an eye on the forward edge of

the battlefield and VRS movement. During the day, Dutch soldiers were constantly harassed by

VRS fires, although none ofthem got seriously wounded. The continued assurance on the part

of the Bosnian Serbs that they did not want to exploit the vulnerability of the UNPROFOR

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soldiers appeared consistent with the reality.77 At the end of the day, the VRS had made good

progress and threatened to overrun a part ofthe blocking position. Groen had ordered his men

only to fire directly at the VRS troops if or when they actually fired upon the Dutch troops.

Before the dilemma of opening fire on VRS soldiers presented itself to the troops, the VRS

halted its attack. In the meantime, Karremans had requested CAS for the fourth time. During

that evening, the Dutch minister ofDefence Voorhoeve, was asked ifhe agreed with the use of

CAS in order to stop the VRS advance into the enclave because this could jeopardize the lives of

the Dutch hostages. Voorhoeve answered that due to the need to protect the population of the

enclave he was not in the position to say no.78

In the morning of July 11th, everybody in the enclave was looking at the sky in

anticipation ofthe air strike that would attack some 40 VRS targets in and close to the enclave.

During the night, Karremans received information that General Janvi~r and Akashi had finally

approved his air strike request, which was not true. There was a fatal miscommunication

between General Nicolai, Colonel Brantz, and Karremans, which resulted in Karremans' belief

that an air strike was imminent.79 Karremans communicated this scheduled air strike to the

battalion and to the Muslim civil and military authorities. Yet, as the air strikes were not carried

out the situation deteriorated rapidly during the remainder of the day. After the VRS continued

their advance towards Srebrenica, Franken ordered 'weapons free,' fire at will, at 11.17 in order

to halt the VRS move towards the city.80 The soldiers in the blocking position did not execute

this order. It is unclear why, during this period there was a temporarily loss of communications.

Karremans requested CAS for the fifth and sixth time. Finally, Janvier and Akashi approved the

request. At 14.47 two Dutch F-16s provided some limited CAS. After VRS threatened to kill all

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the Dutch hostages and to shell the enclave, HQ Sarajevo decided not to continue with CAS.

The VRS continued to move towards Srebrenica while the ABiH was no longer resisting. This

resulted in the final order from Captain Groen at around 15.00 to abandon the compound in

Srebrenica. He ordered four APCs as a buffer between the refugees and the VRS during their

move to Protocari. Srebrenica was lost, marking the beginning of the end.

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Karremans' decisions in relation to the moral and ethical framework

The first question we have to answer in relation to the framework is: Did Karremans

recognise the ethical problem he was faced with?

In a situation in which the level ofviolence is such that military leaders deployed in a

peace operation can no longer accomplish their mission, they should always bear in mind

the purpose of their deployment. If they cannot perform the neutral monitoring role they

have been assigned at the beginning ofthe mission, they should look at what type ofrole

they have performed as a result of their deployment. If their mission is unachievable, but

the purpose of their deployment is to provide protection to refugees, they should focus on

the purpose of their deployment and understand that that purpose has taken priority above

the mission.81

When analysing this quote ofDr Paolo Tripodi, holder of the Ethics and Leadership Chair at the

Marine Corps University, I have come to the conclusion that Karremans, despite many

mitigating circ*mstances, probably did not immediately recognize the moral and ethical

problems that were at hand. One element of Karremans' mission, protecting the population

through Dutchbat presence, was certainly no longer feasible. To resist the VRSs' contempt for

the UN peacekeepers and their mission, UN presence by itselfno longer seemed enough to deter

the VRS. Dutchbat by itselfhad to give a stronger signal.

Karremans' failure to recognize the ethical dilemma may have been the result of a lack of

information. After the VRS occupied OP-E on June 3rd, the situation in the enclave remained

tense. Karrernans and the UN HQs in Sarajevo and Zagreb had no more than a suspicion that the

VRS might have the intention of attacking the southern part of the enclave. Karremans or his

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colleagues in the UN HQs had no idea that the VRS intended to occupy the whole enclave. They

all missed the signals that something of importance was bound to happen. This was a

consequence of an overall bad intelligence position of national and international intelligence

agencies and Dutchbat. It was unclear, until the evening of July 9th, what the actual intentions of

the VRS were.

From July 9th, it became clear that the goal of the VRS might be to occupy the whole

enclave. Based on this assumption, Karremans was given the order to establish a blocking

position and stop any VRS movement into the town of Srebrenica. Karremans however, had

reported on several occasions that Dutchbat would not be capable of defending the enclave if the

VRS were determined to take it. He believed that VRS aggression could only be stopped by a

massive air strike on multiple targets in order to prevent retaliation with artillery or rockets.

After he received the order for the blocking position, Karremans was well aware ofhis dilemma

that if the VRS would advance, Dutchbat in itself would not be capable of stopping them. By

then he was also aware of the possible consequences that this attack would have on his mission

to protect the population of Srebrenica. There is no indication, however, that he knew what

would be the faith of the Muslim males.

The failure to see an ethical dilemma can also be influenced by a strong prejudice.

Karremans remained of the opinion that Dutchbat was only capable of executing its mission if

the VRS and ABiH were in agreement. Dutchbat was a neutral player. Karremans reported on

numerous occasions that Dutchbat could not defend the enclave. In his book, Srebrenica Who

Cares?, Karremans stated that, "the order to defend the southern edge of the city Srebrenica has

convinced me that someone's fuses must have been blown Up."S2 The narrow-mindedness in

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relation to Dutchbats' own defensive capabilities strongly influenced the behaviour ofmany

Dutchbat soldiers and Karremans was no exception. Dutchbat was in no position to put up a

fight without the proper air power to protect itself. Karremans communicated a firm standpoint

on any hostile intention that the VRS might undertake against OP-E, but he and his men failed to

break out of the peacekeeping prejudice in their heads when the use of force was required. The

same behaviour is seen throughout the whole crisis.

This line of prejudice was also very clear in the way Captain Groen acted throughout the

crisis. Until the very end he saw neutrality ofDutchbat as the ultimate goal in order to protect

the population effectively; he even jeopardized his own life and the lives ofDutch soldiers to do

so. The use of force in order to stop the VRS from moving towards Srebrenica somehow just

seemed not to be a valid option.

According to the presented framework, a third reason for not recognizing an ethical

dilemma is because of external influence of ones beliefs. Even though the mission ofDutchbat

was to protect the population, the role that the ABiH played in influencing this part ofDutchbats'

mission during the crisis can not be underestimated. How Karremans thoughts might have been

influenced and how the ABiH's role influenced his decision-making is difficult to say. In his

book, Karremans stated that 'the members ofDutchbat were not seen as guests, they were taken

hostage, fired upon, robbed, hindered to execute their mission, and even murdered. ,83 Although

Karremans is not saying it directly, it is in my opinion clear that he is referring to the Muslims in

general or the ABiH in particular. The perceived threat from the ABiH resulted in the surrender

of several OPs to the VRS. After the Dutch soldier was killed by the ABiH and after Karremans

received orders to safeguard the lives of the Dutch soldiers, Karremans' thoughts ofprotecting

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the population were most likely secondary to his worries for his own soldiers, who were by now

threatened from both sides.

The second question of the framework will now be addressed: Did Karremans fail to

make the right decisions when faced with his dilemma to defend the enclave and did he fail to

communicate his orders effectively? According to the NIOD researchers, Karremans did not

make incorrect military decisions.84 Because Karremans was mainly focused on analysing the

situation and reporting to the higher chain of command, while Franken was in charge ofleading

Dutchbats' daily activities, it was Franken who was giving the orders on the radio when a crisis

occurred. Over the course ofthe Bandera crises, Franken was in the area several times, and

during the loss of OP-E, clear direct orders were issued. In both situations the orders did not

result in the desired end state.

How did Karremans and his staff prepare for the crisis on OP-E? The hostage crisis inI

May showed clearly that higher HQ had no intention ofprotecting the OPs with air support. Did

Karremans fail to understand this? In his situation reports, Karremans boldly stated that he

would defend the OP, however this clear, firmly stated intention turned out to be a hollow phrase

in the end.

During the fall ofOP-F, the OP commander initially was not permitted to withdraw from

his position. Karremans did not want to lose another OP and he continued to rely on air support.

Once again the question remains: What would have happened if CAS was refused? There were

no indications that higher HQ policy towards air support had changed. Was there a plan to

defend the OP? Did they relocate anti tank weapons and personal to OP-F in order to defend it?

There is no evidence that OP-F was reinforced in order to be defended though. Or did such a

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plan not exist because of the higher HQ orders to take no unnecessary risks? In the midst of the

crisis however, Franken gave an order to use the TOWs, but the OP commander decided

differently.85 The orders the OP commanders received to act as they thought necessary seemed

not to have the intention of stopping the VRS from entering the enclave or taking over the OPs.

These were clearly in line with the 'no unnecessary risk' order.

After receipt of the order to establish the blocking position, Karremans gave Captain

Groen the order to execute this mission. The next day there was no effort made, either by

Karremans or Franken to go out to the blocking position and instruct the troops who were

positioned there. To change the nature of any mission (the green order) is an extreme challenge.

In the case ofDutchbat, its mission changed from peace keeping to peace enforcing. Karremans

l .should have understood the dilemma that the order to establish a blocking position would present

to his men. Given the situation, Karremans must have known that this was Dutchbats' last

chance to stop the VRS from advancing into Srebrenica. He knew that the mission he had given

his soldiers would put them in harm's way. In order to verify whether his orders were executed

as he intended, Karremans should have used some form of control. He also should have given,

moral support to his troops at the moment that they needed it the most.

The third question of the framework addresses the issue ofunjust but convenient

decisions. Did Karremans take decisions that were unjust but convenient? One could argue that

he did in relation to his requests for air strikes. He knew that with the policy change ofMay 29th,

the UN HQ would not support all requests for air support in case of the defence of an OP. So in

order to defend an OP he had to rely on his own capabilities. A contingency plan on how to

defend the OPs without air support seemed just not to have existed. Karremans probably did not

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make a decision to defend the enclave because he was convinced he was not capable to do so.

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Conclusions

The presented framework for analyses identifies skills that commanders need to possess

to make adequate decisions when faced with ethical and moral dilemmas. In the case of

Srebrenica, it became clear that these skills were affected by many external and internal factors.\

As a result, it was extremely difficult for Karremans to make the moral right decisions and to

take appropriate action. In retrospect, however, I believe that Karremans did not take the correct

moral and ethical approach as he decided not to defend the enclave during the attack on

Srebrenica.

No one, including Dutchbat had seen the attack of the VRS coming, and as a result, no

one recognized the potential for an ethical dilemma. After all the VRS had no bad intentions,

had they? This failure to anticipate VRS intentions was influenced by the poor information

available to Dutchbat. As a consequence, Dutchbat took a reactive instead of a proactive

approach.

In my opinion, once the true intention of the VRS became clear, Karremans had to

consider the possibility of sending the VRS a strong signal in order to prevent them from

entering the enclave. This in spite of the fact that he believed that he was in no position to

defend the enclave, although I am aware of the fact that armed resistance only could have been

very limited and that it might have had many unforeseen and unwanted consequences.

The reluctance to use force was, in my view, the result of a strong prejudice that Dutchbat

was in no position to defend the enclave and therefore needed to remain in a neutral position.

This approach, however, compromised Dutchbats' ability to fight or plan for any form of

defence. From June 3rd, after the loss of OP-E, the need for a contingency plan that did not rely

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on air support was very evident. Karremans or any battalion commander in a similar position,

should have war gamed contingency plans. The purpose of such plans, giving the VRS a clear

military signal in case they decided to attack, could only have been limited. The weapon systems

available to the battalion should have empowered Dutchbat to send such a clear military signal.

Even without the policy change on air support, contingency planning in the case of foul weather

should have been done.

Another factor that likely had a negative impact on Dutchbats' decision to confront the

VRS was the gradual deterioration of the relationship between Dutchbat and the ABiH. This

relationship, already poor, received a blow after a Dutch soldier was killed by a Muslim soldier.

As a result, an atmosphere of distrust and even hostility between the ABiH and Dutchbat came

about. Thus, Karremans and his troops were faced with two possibly hostile factions. This

resulted in an inward focus and the safety ofDutchbat soldiers got priority over the mission.

Did Karremans communicate his decisions effectively in order to take appropriate action?

Karremans orders were clear enough, but lacked execution according to the commanders' intent.

Although Karremans remained loyal to his superiors, during the crisis Karremans did not show

enough leadership when it was most needed. In situations were he asked a strong commitment

from his troops he did not lead by example (green mission). He did not exercise supervision in

situations were it was essential. Due to this failure his most crucial orders--the defence of OP-F

and the establishment of the blocking position--were executed in a different way than what he

intended.

Did Karremans make decisions that were unjust but convenient? Karremans knew that

with the policy change of May 29th, the UN HQ would not support all requests for air support in

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case of the defence of an OP. So after the loss of OP-E, which confinned the UN policy in

relation to the protections of OPs, he must have known that if he wanted to defend the other OPs,

he had to rely on his own resources. The decision to rely solely on air support was therefore

ambivalent and resulted in inactivity with regard to the development ofDutchbats' contingency

plans.

Although my conclusion is that Karremans did not take the correct moral and ethical

approach when he decided not to defend the enclave, I want to emphasize that in hindsight,

Karremans' position was typical of a moral dilemma. Had he fought and lost a hypothetical

twenty soldiers, he might have prevented the mass murder of7,500 Muslim men. For this

prevention of a mass murder he would not have received much credit however, nobody would

have known what he prevented. On the other hand he then probably would have been prosecuted

for disobeying a direct order to abandon the OPs a~d consequently would have been held

responsible for the death ofhis soldiers.

It remains extremely sour for the population of Srebrenica that four weeks after the fall

of the enclave, the UN and NATO stopped the VRS aggression by initiating the air campaign,

DeliberateForce. During this two-week air campaign, several hundred VRS targets all over

Bosnia Herzegovina were destroyed, which forced the Bosnian Serbs to the negotiating table.

\

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Annex A: The situation in Srebrenica June, 1995.86

_"._u._.. b9Yndefie#Vf'l$Fbrl9(i,~l;l3.111..... bOl.ll"lderiEi$.Dutchbatcompj:lSl'lI&s ..

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Annex B, Chronology ofmain events January- July 1995.

16 April 1993 Un resolution 819 declares Srebrenica as a "SafeArea."

June 4, 1993 UN resolution 836, the mandate for UNPROFOR.January 11, 1995 Start of the Bandera triangle Crises.

16.00-17.00 Fighting between ABiH and VRS Westside of theenclave.

January 12, 1995 ABiH stops a Dutch patrol.January 18, 1995 Karremans takes over command.January 24, 1995 11.00 and 12.30 Patrol with Franken is stopped. Also patrol near

OP-C is stopped.January 28, 1995 After consultations with higher HQ 3 patrols

executed iot establish FOM in the BanderaTriangle, 100 Dutchbat soldiers held hostage forthree days by Muslims.

February 1, 1995 Crisis ended, FOM lost! Very bad beginning for therelationship between Dutchbat III and ABiH. OP-Bis lost to ABiH.

February 18, 1995 Last Fuel convoy reaches Srebrenica.M~ch 29, 1995 Dutch soldier Jeffrey Broere is killed by artillery

( fire in Simin Han.April 26, 1995 Refusal Serbs to let 180 Dutch soldiers return to

Srebrenica after their leave.May 10,1995 Letter nr9565 Karremans informs Higher Echelon about

consequences of fuel shortage.May 10, 1995 Convoy arrives with 10,000 kg ofporc meat. The

meat cannot be kept because of fuel shortage.May 18,1995 Letter nr 9571 Karremans presents an analysis of withdrawal from

OPs based on shortage of supplies and fuel.May 22, 1995 Janvier briefs Security Council on his views on the

safe areas, these ideas are not adopted. U.S.opposed his ideas and was not willing to give up thesafe areas nor was it willing to sent troops.

May 25, 1995 Bombing by NATO ofPale.May 26, 1995 Bombing and then Hostage crisis.May 27, 1995 Attack of French OP post bridge Sarajevo, French

counterattack and retake lost OP.May 28, 1995 VSR attack on Gorazde, los of several UK and

Ukraine OPs.15.00 Nicolai talks to Karremans about leaving some

OPs. He also reports that CAS request need to belimited because of the danger of escalation.

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± 23.00 Karremans receives order to abandon OP-A, OP-Band OP-C. He refuses!

± 24.00 Karremans talks again with Nicolai. BHC HQ hadgiven the order to abandon 6 to 8 OPs. After adiscussion a temporarily solution is found. OPsmust prepare to leave on order within 1 hour afterthat call is made.

Night Karremans has a discussion with his Company cdrs.He give them new orders for the OP's and QRF.What to do when VSR wanted to capture an OP isno written order found.

May 29, 1995 Letter nr 9581 Karremans analysis why not to withdraw from theOPs.

Morning Karremans gets additional order with regards to theOPs.

Afternoon Franken has a meeting with ARiB and states that incase of a VSR attack he can defend the OPs max 72hours.

Afternoon Karremans has a conversation with Lt Col de Ruiterreference the intentions of the VSR. They alsodiscuss the situation in Gorazde and Zepa.

May 29,1995 New UN policy with regards to Airstrikes and CAS.May 30,'1995 Section 5 has a meeting with Serbs. They warn for

AHiB aggression towards the OPs. In Gorazde twomore OPs are taken over by the VSR

May 31,1995 Preparations by capt Groen to strengthen OP-E.

\Figthing in vicinity ofOP-E and some others

~, between VSR and AHIB.May31, 1995 Letter nr 9584 KaiTemans reports on a possible attack on OP-E

and what he will do about it.June 1, 1995 Karremans has a meeting with Serbs by phone from

OP-E. No reasons for worry he had said. The Serbshad demanded that the OP would be abandoned.

June 2,1995 O'Grady shot down by Serb anti air.June 2, 1995 Evening VSR fires fifteen times on OP-E.June 3, 1995 Serb attack on OP-E, OP is abandoned by Dutch.

Groen in his APC is more or less taken hostage byARiB 500 m North ofOP-E. This crisis is solvedand Dutch create a new OP-U on this location.Karremans requested CAS.

June 3, 1995 11.00 APC ofDutchbat in Simin Han fired upon and hitby a VSR anti-tank rocket. 2 heavily woundedsoldiers.

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June 4, 1995 Letter nr 9588 Karremans reports on the deteriorating situation inSrebrenica to higher HQ.

June 5, 1995 Letter nr 9589 Karremans reports to NL the deteriorating situationin Srebrenica.

June 7,1995 Convoy UNHCR with 72 tons of food for thepopulation.

June 8, 1995 Karremans reports that an attack on the enclavemight be a possibility.

June 9,1995 Start of debriefing in theater.June 12, 1995 Couzy takes the decision that the people on leave

will not return to Srebrenica anymore, 430 personsremain in enclave.

June 17,1995 Letter nr 9597 Karremans reports to Chief of the Dutch Anny theLogistical and personal situation.

June 20, 1995 Some fuel arrives, UNHCR convoy arrives.June 27, 1995 UNHCR convoy with food arrives.June 29, 1995 Letter nr 95105 Karremans informs higher HQ again about the

situation within the Battalion in Srebrenica.July 5, 1995 Troop movements are seen though not interpreted

as a sign for the upcoming assault.July 6, 1995 26 people can leave Srebrenica.Thursday, July 6, 05.00 - 13.00 Serb shelling trenches in vicinity OP-F, Sgt van1995 Rossum.

13.00 - 19.00 Serb shelling (tank) ofOP-F itself.13.50 Dutch CAS request. Karremans vision of CAS was

that of an airstrike. Multiple targets to preventretaliation with artillery by the Serbs. This was nothigher HQ policy.Request to leave OP-F denied.

Hole day Ad random shelling of the enclave, over 150.Friday, July 7, Rain and mist no shelling.1995

No shelling ofthe enclave.Letter nr 95112 Karremans informs higher HQ about the

deteriorating situation and ask support by groundand air.Karremans reports that he thinks the meaning of theshelling was to intimidate UN and population.

Saturday, July 8, 11.25 Continuation of Serb shelling trenches in vicinity of1995 OP-F.

Request to leave the OP denied. Franken orders OP-F to use TOW to destroy tank.

13.00 CAS request.

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II

-I

14.00 Serb shelling (tank) ofOP-F itself.14.10 OP-F hit and outbreak of panic in OP-F.14.20 request to leave OP-F granted.14.30-15.00 Serbs at OP-F take Dutch equipment.15.20 OP-F abandoned by Dutch.15.52-16.35 Airplanes arrive to intimidate Serbs. Air presence.± 16.00 Muslims shoot at Dutch APC after leaving OP-F,

Dutch soldier killed as result ofthis incident.17.00 Groen order two APC to find new frontline, Lt

Egbers moves forward and finds Muslim soldiers.They throw two hand grenades after which APemoves back to compound.

18.30-19.00 OP-U surrounded by Serb troops, the soldiers leavevoluntarily (first 6 hostages) for Serb territoryinstead of trying to make it back to Srebrenicabecause of the Muslim threat.

19.00 Groen orders FAC (engine failure) to hilltop, laterhe orders two APC to do the same, Lt Egbers. Theymove West of Srebrenica on the Bluff and thisposition is known as bravo 1 (blocking position).

±20.00 Sitrep by Sgt van Eck from behind Serb lines.Groen is surprised to learn the strength ofthe Serbforces.

Hole day Ad random shelling of the enclave, over 200.Letter nr 95113 Karremans informs higher HQ about the

deteriorating situation in Srebrenica.Sunday, July 9, (

1995 ,

08.15 Aircraft above the enclave. Karremans don't wantthem now. He is afraid for his hostages. Also isthere no authorization to attack. Cynical that bynow Sarajevo preps CAS while Karremans has notrequested CAS.Refugees from the South and the Swedish ShelterProject move into Srebrenica town, since the nightbefore some 3,000.

Hole day Ad random shelling of the enclave.08.30 Lt Egbers with two APC and sgt Bos with one APC

are parked in a hairpin tum to observe the roadapproach to Srebrenica. Show the flag.

08.45 - 09.15 OP-S taken by Serb troops, Sgt Bresser chose tomove behind Serb lines instead ofmoving back toSrebrenica. He was afraid of the Muslims. Frankensaid the next day that he did not want to have a new

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OP-S story., 11.56 Karremans sent his assessment, Serbs want to

secure southern part of the safe area, and possiblythey will take the rest of the safe area later as well.This is not an eminent threat, however. No singleattacks but only a massive airstrike can stop theSerbs by now.

13.00 -13.30 Sgt Bos is sent forward to find the new frontline.He is surrounded by Serbs near the Swedish ShelterProject. He surrenders and by now the Serbs have20 Dutch hostages.

14.00 OP-K and OP-D report that the fighting is movingpast them. The Serbs were advancing around bothOPs.

15.00 Serb shells explode }OO.yards from OP-K and at thesame time also near OP-M. Karremans did notrequest CAS at this time. Nicolai had explained toKarremans the new guidelines for CAS and thedefense of the OPs.

16.30 OP-M abandoned by Dutch, they move back 200\ yards and are more or less held hostage by AHiB.

16.30 OP-D and OP-Kmaybe abandoned as the soldierssee fit.

±17.00 Serbs pas Bibici and are not stopped by AHiB. Theroad to Srebrenica from the south is wide open.Karremans and Col Brantz think for the first timethat the Serbs might want to take the whole safearea.

17.50 Nicolai calls the Bosnian Serbs that a blockingposition will be established and that an attack by theSerbs will be followed by NATO CAS.

18.15 OP-D is abandoned, troops move to Muslim linesand are stopped by Muslims and are taken hostage.

18.30 OP-K is surrounded and Dutch surrender to Serbs.Serbs now have 30 Dutch soldiers taken hostage.

19.30 Nicolai calls again.Nicolai calls Karremans to talk about the order ofthe blocking position. They talk about the CASrules and the reason for the blocking position. Firstsmall arms fire before CAS can be requested. Usesome of your Anti Tank weapons.Miscommunication? Karremans believes that thenext morning massive air attacks will follow.Nicolai only thinks CAS will follow if the blocking

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position is attacked.20.30 Groen hears that at 21.00 airstrikes will be

executed. Again was this a request initiated fromoutside the battalion. The request was stopped inSarajevo.

21.00 No Airstrike!22.00 Fax Written order for the Blocking Position.

Monday, July 10,1995

Morning Dutchbat can see the VSR attack into the enclave.House after house is set ablaze.

06.50 Muslim counterattack to the South.07.00 Three of the four Blocking positions in position. In

total 6 APC and 60 men. Capt Hageman is overallcdr of the four blocking positions. Capt Groenremained in Compound Srebrenica.

07.15 Explosion at position Bravo four, south road, andone APC is stuck on the side off the road, The otherAPC and troops return to compound. In fact it was aSerb tank and not a Muslim hand grenade thatcaused the explosion (so they were under attack).

08.00 Heavy shelling of Srebrenica.Hole day Ad random shelling of the enclave.08.55 Karremans third request for CAS.11.00 Bravo 1 is fired upon by Serb tank. The Dutch

move back out of sight. Was it fire on the Dutch orwas it at the Muslim artillery piece? AHiB firedtheir artillery piece.

11.00 Salvage APC arrives at the south position Bravofour to salvage the APC that was stuck there thatmorning. They are fired upon by a Serb tank andflee back to the compound.

12.00 Egbers is in a new position with only 1 of the FACsoperational.

Afternoon Soldiers of OP-D arrive at compound after beingheld hostage by the Muslims since the day before.

16.30 Groen orders Bravo 3 and 4 back to the marketbecause they are threatened to be cut off. Serbsmove North again from the south. There are noAPC there anymore to block them. Capt. Groenorders Bravo 1 back to the compound because he isafraid they will be cut off too.

/ 18.00 OP-H reports 50 Serb soldiers on the hilloverlooking Srebrenica.

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18.30 OP-H reports that Serbs are advancing.±18.30 Dutch fire from the market overhead Serb troops

and aimed fire. Finally, the goals to request CASare met.

±18.45 Karremans fourth requests for CAS.19.00 Serbs retreated but fire some rounds at market, no

wounded.Evening Some air presence.21.00 Dutchbat, and a bit later also Sarajevo are given an

offer to leave the enclave. The offer was made bythe Serbs. Karremans, Akashi, and Janvier allrefuse.

22.00 Dutch Minister ofDefense warns for CAS and thepossibility that this will possible cause Dutchcasualties

Janvier No CAS that night! CAS tomorrow morning.24.00 Karremans has a meeting with his Company cdrs.

He tells them that at 06.00 airstrikes will come.Tuesday, 11 July,1995

00.30 Karremans has a meeting with Muslim leadership.He tells them that CAS will be given that morning.

During the night Heavy shelling of Srebrenica, 182 detonations.02.15 Mortar shell explodes 10 feet from APC near

market.04.30 OP-H abandoned.05.00 First light.05.00 Egbers moves out to Bravo 1 to guide the airstrike.06.00 No CAS!07.00 Airstrike will commence at 07.00.08.00 Again request for CAS (Sffi time).09.30 Groen orders two APC forward from the market to

find the Serbs front position. They do and the Serbshave not withdrawn.

10.00 Karremans requests for the sixth time CAS.10.44 Franken orders Blocking 1 forward and they should

fire .50 and 81mm mortars.He orders weapons free at 11.17 The squad doesn'tfire.

11.00 Egbers is ordered to move back to the exposedcurve at Bravo 1 (show UN flag). They get shelled(tank) at their position after 20 minutes or so.

11.10 Serb guns open fire. Op-H is hit by mortars and OP-

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M and OP-N are shelled as well.12.15 CAS approved for the first time by Akashi and

Janvier. The Dutch had requested it 6 times sincethe beginning of the attack.

± 12.00 The Refugees start to move to the Dutch compoundin Srebrenica and to the North.

12.30 Shell hit OP-H which the Dutch had just left.Afternoon Soldiers ofOP-M arrive at compound in Srebrenica

after being held hostage. They think that on theirway back the APC might have been driven overrefugees.

13.30 Serb shell detonates in the Dutch compound atSrebrenica between refugees.

± 14.00 Capt Groen orders the APC's near the market tocome back and act as a shield for the fleeingMuslim refugees. Since the Muslims made no effortto protect the town Groen (stay neutral in order toprotect the refugees) did not order the Dutch to doso.

14.42 Two Dutch F-16 give CAS!14.47 Janvier orders abandoning of all OP's without

getting engaged with the AHiB.± 15.00 Egbers retreats to compound± 15.30 Compound in Srebrenica is abandoned.15.50 Ultimatum to Dutchbat by the Serbs.18.30 Karremans receives new orders from HQ.20.00 OP-C is robbed of its weapons and personal

belongings by AHiB soldiers who threaten to shootthem.

20.30 Karremans is summoned for a meeting with Serbs.23.30 Karremans has a second meeting with Serbs.

Wednesday, July12, 1995

Morning OP-C is abandoned after Serbs take over the OP.Dutch are taken to Milici.

Morning OP-R is abandoned after Serbs take over the OP.Dutch are taken to Bratunac

Morning OP-Q is abandoned after Serbs take over the OP.Dutch are taken to Bratunac.

Morning OP-P is abandoned after Serbs take over the OP.Dutch can go to Potocari.

11.30 Karremans has a third meeting with Serbs.13.00 Serbs arrive at compound at Potocari.

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15.00 OP-N is abandoned after Serbs take over the OP.Dutch are taken to Bratunac.

Thursday, July 13, Evacuation ofrefugees.1995Friday, July 14, Evacuation ofrefugees.1995Saturday, July 15, 19.50 OP-A is abandoned and Dutch soldiers are brought1995 to Milici.

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Endnotes:

I Bakker, Bert. Missie zonder vrede, Parlementaire enquete Srebrenica, rapport. Den Haag, the Netherlands:Tweede kamer vergadeIjaar 2002 - 2003, nr. 3,2003. Pag. 403.

2 Bakker, Bert. Missie zonder vrede, Parlementaire enquete Srebrenica, rapport. Pag.51.

3 Sclunidl, Erwin. Peace Operations Between War and Peace (Peacekeeping). New York: Routledge, 2000. Pag. 97.

4 Niod. Srebrenica Een Veilig Gebeid 3 volumes. Pag. 2372.

5 Ibid., Pag 2839.

6 Ibid., Pag 2837.

7 Ibid., Pag.2838.

8 Ibid., Pag 2838.

9 Sclunidl, Erwin. Peace Operations Between War and Peace (Peacekeeping). Pag 114.

10 Karremans, Thom. Srebrenica, Who Cares? Nieuwegein, the Netherlands: Arko Uitgeverij BV, 1998. Pag. 198.

11 Siekmann, Robert C.R. . "The fall of Srebrenica and the attitude ofDutchbat from an internationalleg~1perspective." Yearbook ofInternational Humanitarian Law, . Pag 312

12 Ibid., Pag 312.

13 Marine Corps Warfighting Publication 6 - 11, Pag 39.

14 Van Ierse1, A.H.M., and Th.A. Van Baarda. Militaire ethiek, Morele dilemma's van militairen in theorie enpraktijk. Pag. 62.

IS Van Baarda, Th.A., and D.E.M. Verweij. Military Ethics, The Dutch Approach, apractil guide. Leiden, theNetherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 2006. Pag. Xiii

16 Quoted in Schmidl, Erwin. Peace Operations Between War and Peace (Peacekeeping). Pag 130.

17 Niod. Srebrenica Een Veilig Gebeid 3 volumes. Pag. 2401.

18 Ibid., Pag. 2363.

19 Ibid., Pag. 2364.

20 Karremans, Thom. Srebrenica, Who Cares? Pag. 22.

21 Niod. Srebrenica Een Veilig Gebeid 3 volumes. Pag. 1314.

22 Ibid., Pag. 1313.

23 Ibid., Pag. 2389.

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24 Ibid., Pag 2388.

25 Ibid., Pag. 2388.

26 Ibid., Pag. 1585.

27 Ibid., Pag 1384.

28 Karremans, Thom. Srebrenica, Who Cares? Pag. 95.

29 Ibid., Pag 293,312,315,324, and 328.

30 Niod. Srebrenica Een Veilig Gebeid 3 volumes. Pag. 1933.

31 Ibid., Pag 3149.

32 Ibid., Pag 1443.

33 Ibid., Pag 1579.

34 Ibid., Pag 1501.

35 Wiebes, C.. Intelligence en oorlog in Bosnie 12 -1995. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Boom, 2002. Pag 160.

)

36 Schoonoord, D.C.L.. Dutchbat III en de bevolking: medische aangelegenheden, bevoorrading door de lucht.Asterdam, the Netherlands: Boom, 2002. Pag. 16.

37 Niod. Srebrenica Een Veilig Gebeid 3 volumes. Pag. 1581.

38 Karremans, Thom. Srebrenica, Who Cares? Pag. 55.

39 Ibid., Pag 279.

40 Niod. Srebrenica Een Veilig Gebeid 3 volumes. Pag. 1595.

41 Karremans, Thom. Srebrenica, Who Cares? Pag. 87.

42 Praamsma, Hendrina, Jet Peekel, and Toni Boumans. Herinneringen aan Srebrenica, 171 soldatengesprekken.Asterdam, the Netherlands: Uitgeverij Bert Bakker, 2005. Pag 23.

43 Niod. Srebrenica Een Veilig Gebeid 3 volumes. Pag. 1993.

44 Karremans, Thom. Srebrenica, Who Cares? Pag. 300.

45 Niod. Srebrenica Een Veilig Gebeid 3 volumes. Pag. 1991.

46 Ibid., Pag. 1991.

47 Ibid., Pag. 2159.

48 Karremans, Thom. Srebrenica, Who Cares? Pag. 303.

45

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49 Ibid., Pag 305, and 307.

50 Ibid., Pag. 306.

51 Ibid., Pag 312 and 315.

52 Niod. Srebrenica Een Veilig Gebeid 3 volumes. Pag 2011.

53 Ibid., Pag. 2016

54 Karremans, Thorn. Srebrenica, Who Cares? Pag. 322.

55 Niod. Srebrenica Een Veilig Gebeid 3 volumes. Pag 2110.

56 Ibid., Pag 2163.

57 Ibid., Pag 2102.

58 Ibid., Pag 2103.

59 Karremans, Thorn. Srebrenica, Who Cares? Pag. 330.

60 Ibid., Pag. 162.

61 Niod. Srebrenica Een Veilig Gebeid 3 volumes. Pag 2015.

62 Ibid., Pag 2016.

63 Ibid., Pag 2125.

64 Ibid., Pag 2128.

65 Karre~ans, Thorn. Srebrenica, Who Cares? Pag. 175.

66 Niod. Srebrenica Een Veilig Gebeid 3 volumes. Pag 2147.

67 Karremans, Thorn. Sreb~enica, Who Cares? Pag. 332.

68 Niod. Srebrenica Een Veilig Gebeid 3 volumes. Pag 2146.

69 Karremans, Thorn. Srebrenica, Who Cares? Pag. 335.

70 Niod. Srebrenica Een Veilig Gebeid 3 volumes. Pag 2155.

71 Niod. Srebrenica Een Veilig Gebeid 3 volumes. Pag 2160.

72 Karremans, Thorn. Srebrenica, Who Cares? Pag. 176.

73 Ibid., Pag 338.

74 Niod. Srebrenica Een Veilig Gebeid 3 volumes. Pag 2160

46

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75 Ibid., Pag 2161.

76 Ibid., Pag 2167.

77 Ibid., Pag 2129.

78 Ibid., Pag 2195.

79 Ibid., Pag 2327.

80 Ibid., Pag 2229.

81 Tripodi, Paolo. "Soldiers' moral responsibility in peace support operations." 46th anniversary bi-annualintematinal conference, 2007 inter-university seminar on armed forces and society, Washington,November 1, 2007. Pag 16.

82 Karremans, Thom. Srebrenica, Who Cares? Pag. 176.

83 Ibid., Pag. 252.

84 Niod. Srebrenica Een Veilig Gebeid 3 volumes. Pag 2396.

85 Ibid., Pag. 2115.

86 Ibid., Pag. 1384.

47

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Bibliography:

Bakker, Bert. Missie zonder vrede, Parlementaire enquete Srebrenica, rapport. Den Haag, theNetherlands: Tweede kamer vergaderjaar 2002 - 2003, nr. 3,2003.

Both, Norbert, and Jan Willem Honig. Srebrenica: Record ofa War Crime. Boston: Penguin(Non-Classics), 1997.

Dijkema, Wim. Dutchbat in vredesnaam, januari 1995 - juli 1995. Rijswijk, the Netherlands:Ui,tgeverij Debut, 1996.

Durch, William. Twenty-first-century Peace Operations. Washington, DC: United StatesInstitute OfPeace Press, 2007.

Finlan, Alastair. The Collapse ofYugoslavia 1991-1999 (Essential Histories). Oxford: OspreyPublishing, 2004.

Holbrooke, Richard. To End a War. New York: Random House, 1998.

Karremans, Thorn. Srebrenica, Who Cares? Nieuwegein, the Netherlands: Arko Uitgeverij BV,1998.

Niod. Srebrenica Een Veilig Gebeid 3 volumes. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Boom Amsterdam,2002.

Praamsma, Hendrina, Jet Peekel, and Toni Boumans. Herinneringen aan Srebrenica, 171soldatengesprekken. Asterdam, the Netherlands: Uitgeverij Bert Bakker, 2005.

Rohde, David. Endgame: The Betrayal and Fall ofSrebrenica, Europe's Worst Massacre SinceWorld War II. Oxford: Westview Press, 1998.

Schmidl, Erwin. Peace Operations Between War and Peace (Peacekeeping). New York:Routledge, 2000.

Schoonoord, D.C.L.. Dutchbat III en de bevolking: medische aangelegenheden, bevoorradingdoor de lucht. Asterdam, the Netherlands: Boom, 2002.

Siekmann, Robert C.R.. "The fall ofSrebrenica and the attitude ofDutchbat from anintemationallegal perspective." Yearbook ofInternational Humanitarian Law, .

Smith, Rupert. The Utility ofForce: The Art ofWar in the Modern World. New York: Knopf,2007.

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Tripodi, Paolo. "Soldiers' moral responsibility in peace support operations." 46th anniversary bi­annual internatinal conference, 2007 inter-university seminar on armed forces andsociety, Washington, November 1, 2007.

Van Baarda, Th.A, and D.E.M. Verweij. Military Ethics, The Dutch Approach a practil guide.Leiden, the Netherlands: Martinus Nijhoff, 2006.

Van Iersel, AH.M., and Th.A Van Baarda. Militaire ethiek, Morele dilemma's van militairen intheorie en praktijk. Bude1, the Netherlands: Uitgeverij DAMON, 2002.

Westerman, Frank, and Bart Rijs. Srebrenica het zwartste scenario. Amsterdam, theNetherlands: Uitgeverij Atlas, 1997.

Wiebes, C.. Intelligence en oorlog in Bosnie 12 -1995. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: Boom,2002.

49

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FAQs

What is a senior NCO in the Army? ›

Senior noncommissioned officers – military leaders, specialists and instructors. The senior noncommissioned officer rank category comprises sergeant and equivalent ranks from OR-6 to OR-9. In the Navy, these ranks are petty officers from OR-6 to OR-9.

What is the code of conduct for military members? ›

I serve in the forces which guard my country and our way of life. I am prepared to give my life in their defense. I will never surrender of my own free will. If in command I will never surrender my men while they still have the means to resist.

Do officers go into combat? ›

Officers do not routinely perform physical labor; they typically supervise enlisted personnel doing so, either directly or via non-commissioned officers. Commissioned officers will and do perform physical labor when operationally required to do so, e.g., in combat.

What are the duties of an NCO in the Army? ›

In any Army, NCOs serve as the focal point for setting and maintaining Soldiers' skills, fitness levels, and professionalism. Individual training and education is our bread and butter. Leading people versus leading the institution.

How long does it take to become a master sergeant in the Army? ›

There is no minimum time-in-grade (TIG) requirement for promotion to E-7, E-8, or E-9, but you must meet the following minimum time-in-service (TIS) requirements to be eligible for promotion: Sergeant First Class (E-7) - 6 years. Master Sergeant/First Sergeant (E-8) - 8 years.

How much do lieutenant colonels make? ›

As of Jun 3, 2024, the average annual pay for a Lieutenant Colonel in the United States is $81,728 a year.

Can released Pows fight again? ›

Parole is a promise by a prisoner of war to a captor to fulfill certain conditions—such as agreeing not to escape nor to fight again once released—in return for such favors as relief from physical bondage, improved food and living condition, or repatriation ahead of the sick, injured, or longer-held prisoners.

What are the 6 standards of conduct of a soldier? ›

This document outlines the six standards of conduct for soldiers: pursuit of excellence, pride in uniform, discipline, professionalism, adherence to law, and deference to authority.

Does the Uniform Code of Military Justice apply to civilians? ›

Civilians may be subject to UCMJ in areas under military control like battlespaces, bases overseas, or during conveyance on military transport.

Do Navy Seal officers see combat? ›

THE HOLISTIC APPROACH TO SEAL OFFICER SELECTION

Every SEAL officer is expected to lead men and women in combat operations early in their careers. In addition to the traditional concentration on direct action and surveillance and reconnaissance missions, officers will be diplomats and development experts.

Do sto see combat? ›

STOs command special operations forces behind enemy lines to conduct the nation's most demanding missions. Decisive and determined, they lead Special Tactics teams in combat, seizing and controlling airstrips, guiding deadly airstrikes, and rescuing US personnel in harm's way. These disciplined warriors never quit.

Do Army ranger officers see combat? ›

The purpose of the Army's Ranger course is to prepare these Army volunteers - both officers and enlisted Soldiers - in combat arms related functional skills. The Rangers' primary mission is to engage in close combat and direct-fire battles.

Can an NCO outrank an officer? ›

All commissioned officers outrank non-commissioned officers (e.g., a sergeant).

Is NCO higher than officer? ›

All non-commissioned officers are considered junior to any commissioned (or warrant) officer, although there are rare instances where an NCO may hold a varying level of authority over a commissioned officer.

Do NCOs have authority? ›

NCOs/POs across all Services and domains are accountable for their personal actions, as well as for the actions of their subordinates. They are empowered with responsibilities and authorities to maintain good order and discipline at all times.

How much does a senior NCO make? ›

The estimated total pay for a Senior Non Commissioned Officer is $110,279 per year in the United States area, with an average salary of $80,192 per year.

What is the difference between a junior NCO and a senior NCO? ›

NCOs are officially divided into two categories: junior non-commissioned officers, consisting of corporals/sailors first class and master corporals/master sailors; and senior non-commissioned officers, consisting of sergeants and petty officers 2nd class.

What are the three senior NCO ranks? ›

Senior non-commissioned officers (SNCOs) hold the highest responsibilities among NCO ranks. Under this command is sergeant first class, master sergeant, first sergeant, sergeant major, command sergeant major, and Sergeant Major of the Army.

What is the highest rank of an NCO in the Army? ›

The highest enlisted rank is whatever each service calls their E-9s. In the Air Force, these members are “Chief Master Sergeants,” while the Army calls them “Sergeants Major.”

References

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